Cause of ankle sprain and how to prevent & treat Ankle sprain

Cause of ankle sprain

An ankle sprain is a ligament injury that usually occurs after a sprained ankle. The ankle ligaments are elastic structures that allow you to keep the joint in its correct positing.

The ligaments, which constitute the lateral stabilizers of the ankle, are mainly responsible for the stability of the joint in movements at the ends of the joint amplitudes, so it is very important to know how to prevent ankle sprain.

Under normal conditions, the ligaments, are elastic structures that re, stretch to their limit, then return to their initial position. All ligaments have a specific range of motion and limits that allow them to keep the joints stabilized. The sprain occurs when the ligament is forced beyond its normal capacity.

There are essentially two types of the ankle sprain. You can also use The most common sprains are those that occur with inversion of the foot to the inside. In turn, in rarer cases, sprains may occur in eversion of the foot (mechanism contrary to the inversion)

Injury to the external lateral ligament or ligament of the “outside” is the most frequent and most often occurs incompletely, occurring mostly in the sprain by inversion.

Degree of ankle sprains

Grade 1 sprain (slight)

      • Light stretch and microscopic breaks of ligament fibber’s
      • Some sensitivity and edema (swelling) around the ankle

Grade 2 Sprain (moderate)

      • Partial ligament rapture;
      • Moderate sensitivity and edema around the ankle;
      • If the doctor moves the ankle in certain positions, there is an abnormal movement of the ankle joint

Grade 3 Sprain (severe)

      • Total ligament rupture;
      • Significant sensitivity and edema around the ankle (very severe pain and very swollen ankle) that arise immediately.
      • If the doctor pulls or pushes the ankle joint in certain movements, the substantial imbalance occurs.

How to prevent ankle sprain?

To avoid future sprains, pay attention to your body’s warning signals to slow down when you feel pain or fatigue and stay in shape with good muscle balance, flexibility, and strength.

The prevention of ankle sprain involves a series of measures, namely;

Warm up before exercise;

Perform muscle strengthening exercises before practicing any sport;

Slow down or stop activities when you feel tired;

Wear sturdy and quality footwear;

Avoid wearing high-heeled shoes;

Be aware of the surfaces you walk on;

Signals and symptoms

In most sprains, you immediately feel foot pain, which can be from mild to very intense, at the site of the sprain. The ankle often begins to “swell” (edema) immediately and local ecchymosis (black ankle) and some joint (ankle fluid) effusion may occur. The ankle area is usually sensitive to touch and pain increases with movements.

In more severe sprains, you can hear and/or feel something “tearing” together with a click. The pain is immediate and strong after the sprain. You will not be able to walk or even exert the force on the foot (put your foot on the floor or “step on”). Thus, the greater the pain and edema (swelling), the more serious the injury and consequently the longer the rehabilitation phase.

The extent of edema (swelling) and the intensity of foot pain vary in proportion to the severity of the sprain. In most low-grade (grade I) sprains, complaints have a duration of 2 to 3 days, up to about 2 weeks to months and depends on the severity of the injury and the treatment instituted.


In sports that require sudden movements and at extremes of amplitude (soccer, futsal, basketball, handball, athletics, etc.), sprains can occur more easily. However, sprains can also occur accidentally on a day-to-day basis, when a person treads incorrectly, etc. the use of inappropriate footwear such a high heels, very wide shoes, among others, can be a risk factor for the occurrence of sprains.

Imbalances are one of the risk factors for the ankle sprain. Those who have “weak muscles” and do physical exertion or exertion without prior adjustment training are more likely to develop sprains.

Ankle sprains can occur at any age, sex, and laterality (left foot, or right foot). Sprains are more common in athlete. People who have had a severe sprain in the past, are also susceptible to further sprains.


The treatment of ankle sprain should be performed according to the severity of the injury.

Usually, in grade 1 sprain should be performed according to the severity of the injury.

Usually, in grade 1 sprains, it is sufficient to perform the following treatments at home, after diagnosis and medical advice:

Rest- should perform joint resting of the ankle, not walking on it.

Ice- applying ice helps to reduce pain and edema (swelling).

Compression – can help control edema as well as immobilize and support the injury.

Elevation – raise the foot by reclining it and supporting it so that it is above the waist.

For a grade II sprain, the above statements should be followed, giving more time for recovery. Walking can be difficult during this time and your doctor will recommend using crutches. In the initial phase, it is important to support the ankle and protect it from sudden movements, and it may be necessary to immobilize the ankle with a splint.

A grade III sprain puts permanent ankle stability at risk. For severe ankle sprains and for greater joint stability, your doctor may find it beneficial to perform a plaster cast (apply plaster to the leg and foot) or use a “walker boot” that allows for greater ankle stability.

Only in rare cases, surgical treatment is necessary. If you martial art lover then read our article just turn on

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